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Mucuna pruriens, aka velvet beans, is a plant that contains L-dopa. L-dopa can pass the blood-brain barrier, and is metabolized in the brain into dopamine. Dopamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that, among many other functions, is a good deal responsible for sexual excitement. But not all velvet beans are the same. In India, velvet beans are grown as animal feed, and those cultivars are void of L-dopa as L-dopa would impede weight gain. Tongkatali.org's mucuna pruriens extract is made from wild Thai mucuna pruriens, naturally high in L-dopa. Be careful of cheating products, even on Amazon, which write a high L-dopa content on labels when in fact these products contain almost no L-dopa. If you want to test: the L-dopa of mucuna pruriens would cause nausea at dosages beyond a few grams.



Marijuana or tongkat ali for better sex, part 1


By Serge Kreutz


Cannabis Opinion, 2019


There is a fundamental difference between marijuana and tongkat ali.

Regardless of how enthusiastic you are about marijuana, there is no doubt that it makes you feel drugged. You may call it high, or stoned, or bright. Fact is that your brain doesn't feel sober.

Some people like to feel drugged most of the day or all day. For them, marijuana is better than cocaine or meth, and better than alcohol or barbiturates. It's certainly better than heroin or other opiates.

I am not one of those.

Apart from the time I am engaged in sexual conduct, I like to feel a clear, sharp mind. I like to master my vocabulary. My mind isn't sharp on marijuana, and on marijuana, I can't form sentences, and certainly not write articles. I just drift off.



This can be good for sex. But if taken as aphrodisiac, marijuana dosages should be comparatively small. But even on a small dosage, marijuana is unpredictable.

Tongkat ali by itself is predictable, and a tongkat ali stack that also incorporates butea superba, velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens), and krachai dam is very predictable. You will have more sexual interest, and your orgasms will feel better.


Underestimated marijuana

The trend in the Americas and Europe is to legalize marijuana. The consensus is that the war on drugs was a failure, not interrupting the use of the drug, and only enriching criminals.



Legalizing and taxing marijuana, so the sounded (and sound) idea, would earn governments much-needed cash, save enormously on enforcement cost, and reduce organized crime.

Furthermore, marijuana has many medical uses.

It can save epileptic children from certain death. It is believed that marijuana stops the progression of Alzheimer's. Marijuana also interferes with HIV replication.



Legal marijuana will change the world. It will have an impact on humanity that is greater than any other of the big changes since World War II: the Internet, the advent of AIDS, the demise of the Soviet Union, or the rise and decline of the Islamic State.

Legal marijuana will be a whole new world. Because it won’t be used just for epileptic children or Alzheimer's and AIDS sufferers.

Many peoole will use it because marijuana can be a sex drug if properly combined with dopaminergic and hormonal enhancement. This is what can make marijuana a game changer.

It has to be noted that marijuana's sexual potential will have to be awakened for a large number of users. For most people, the prosexual effect of marijuana is dormant. It can be awakened by dopaminergic and hormonal brain stimulation by tongkat ali, velvet beans (mucuna pruriens), and butea superba.



I actually consider marijuana a waste if not used for sex. Because the drug is way below its potential if used just for its own sake.

So, once marijuana is legal, the majority of users will be mainstreamers who have never used it, or not since their youth when they were not capable to appreciate the drugs effect on sex. The majority of users will be those who have not used it in recent years because it was illegal: those not inclined to risk years in jail for a few hours of extra pleasure.



Watch out for the transitory dynamics when marijuana will be legal in some places but not all. People go anywhere for better sex, and this means, they will go where marijuana is legal.



Continue reading about marijuana and tongkat ali extract

or

Read about the Thai herbal used for testosterone doping in all Thai kickboxing camps


References:

Ben-Jonathan, N., (2018) Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Breast Cancer: The Saga of Bisphenol A Estrogen Receptor and Breast Cancer pp 343-37720 Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Chaturapanich G, Chaiyakul S, Verawatnapakul V, Pholpramool C. (2008) Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats. Reproduction Volume 136 Issue 4 Pages :515-522 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Edwards, S. E, da Costa Rocha, I., Williamson, E.M., Heinrich, M (2015) Tongkat ali eurycoma longifolia jack Phytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide to Herbal Medicinal Products John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from : John Wiley & Sons - Phytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide to Herbal Medicinal Products

Kant Shukla, K., Ali Mah, A., Kaleem Ahmad M., Shankhwar, S.N., Rajender, S., Jaiswar, S.P. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. Fertility and Sterility Volume 92, Issue 6, Pages: 1934-1940 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Lassen, T.H., Iwamoto, T., Jensen, T.K., Skakkebæk, N. (2014) Trends in Male Reproductive Health and Decreasing Fertility: Possible Influence of Endocrine Disrupters Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia Pages: 117-135 Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Ongwisespaiboon O, Jiraungkoorskul W. (2017) Fingerroot, Boesenbergia rotunda and its Aphrodisiac Activity. Pharmacognosy Reviews Volume 1 Issue 21 Pages:27-30 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Rahman, M.S., Kwon, W.S., Lee, J.S., Yoon, S.J., Ryu, B.Y., Pang, M.J. (2015) Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa Scientific Reports Article number: 9169 Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep09169

Seltenrich, N., (2015) A Hard Nut to Crack: Reducing Chemical Migration in Food-Contact Materials. Environmental Health Perspective https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A174

Skakkebaek, N.E., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Buck Louis, G.M., Toppari, J., (2015) Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility Physiological Reviews Volume 96 Issue 1 Pages 55-97 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Tambi MI, Imran MK, Henkel RR. (2012) Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism? Andrologia Pages:226-30. Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Tocharusa, C., Jeenapongsaa,R., Teakthonga, T., Smitasirib, Y. (2005) Effects of Long-term Treatment of Butea superba on Sperm Motility and Concentration. Naresuan University Journal Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages: 11-17 Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Yotarlai, S., Chaisuksunt, V., Saenphet, K., Sudwan, P. (2011) Effects of Boesenbergia rotunda juice on sperm qualities in male rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Volume 5 Issue 16 Pages: 3861-3867 Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography


Tongkat ali, mucuna pruriens (velvet beans), testosterone, and dopamine


By Serge Kreutz


Natural Dopaminergic Research, 2019


I started with relationships enhancement some 30 years ago. My first attempts were with amino acids, and my first successes with yohimbe.

My next phase were dopaminergics. I have written extensively about the use of dopaminergics in relationships enhancement.

Before, after, and in between the above, I had tried, off and on, all kinds of hormonal therapies. I didn't have any success with them.

I have been using only a combination of tongkat ali and cheap Indian sildenafil citrate (generic Viagra).

This doesn't mean that I would have turned against yohimbine and dopaminergics. These medications do work (though I recommend dopaminergic velvet beans in a stack with mildly dopaminergic tongkat ali, rather then dopaminergic pharmaceuticals). But they all work in different ways. And I assume that it lies in the dialectical nature of our sexuality that all relationships enhancement medications loose some of their kick as we get used to them. Just as routine can be a grave for relationships excitement, routinely used relationships enhancement medications tend to loose their effectiveness.

I mentioned that relationships enhancement medications like dopaminergics, hormones, or tongkat ali work in different ways. First of all, one has to differentiate between medications that work on penile plumbing and those that work on the neurological wiring.

Erectile failure in most cases is a localized vascular problem: blood vessels have to supply a sufficient amount of blood to the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum, and drainage has to be avoided. This is all rather mechanical, and it can be achieved pharmacologically either by sildenafil citrate or yohimbine, or generous dosages of krachai dam in a tongkat ali stack. Krachai dam is a low-affinity phosphodiesterase inhibitor.

When Viagra was not available yet, yohimbine was the only oral drug to specifically treat erectile shortcomings. Another option was injectable prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil). Alprostadil is now available as cream.

Other medications were (and are) useful for relationships enhancement only when there were (or are) no erectile but only neurological relationships problems. If the problem is vascular, no dose of a libido enhancer will induce an erection.

A large number of people are not sufficiently aware of the duality of penile plumbing and neurological wiring. And except for yohimbine, there is no relationships enhancement medication that would work on both components.

Yohimbine does, as the adrenalin which yohimbine displaces from abdominal alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (which, among other things, regulate penile blood flow) reoccur systemically as neurological stimulant.

However, the strong sympathetic impulse caused by systemic adrenaline (in the form of norepinephrine) makes it difficult for the parasympathetic nerve system to take over at the point of orgasm, which, with regular usage of yohimbine, makes for weak ejaculations and orgasms that are no match for the pre-orgasmic excitement. Also, side effects are much worse than with tongkat ali.

But relationships with a firm erection aided by yohimbine is still better than no erection, which normally means: no proper relationships.

Therefore, Viagra (and generic sildenafil citrate), or any other medication that fixes penile plumbing, is a necessity for many men above 40, and for most above 50 or 60.

And only when there are no plumbing problems do other medications (those that work on libido) become relevant.

By and large, there are two groups of pharmaceutical agents that work on libido: those that effect neurotransmitters, and those that target the endocrine (hormonal) system. I say "by and large" because the two systems are intertwined. Drugs that elevate the neurotransmitter dopamine (dopaminergic pharmaceuticals or velvet beans, mucuna pruriens) also suppress the hormone prolactin. Prolactin not only regulates lactation in women but also keeps testosterone in check in men and women. Typically, less prolactin means more testosterone. Furthermore, some hormones can act as neurotransmitters and vice versa; norepinephrine, C8H13NO3, is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter.

The neurotransmitter system reacts much faster than the hormonal system, and you feel this when you take pharmacological agents, or dopaminergic food like velvet beans that act on it. When an effective dosage of any neurotransmitter modifying medications kicks in, you feel it. With most dopaminergics, there is a slight nausea, or at least a desire to lie down. And there is a clear window of opportunity for improved relationships, which usually is the first few hours during which a neurotransmitter drug is active (for apomorphine, this window of opportunity is the shortest; for cabergoline, it is the longest).

When you use neurotransmitters to improve relationships (even L-dopa from mucuna pruriens), you always know that you have taken something.

This is not the case with drugs or herbals like tongkat ali that work on the endocrine system, unless a huge overdose is consumed (for example when women take a testosterone dosage that was formulated for men). Usually, endocrine medications cannot be felt directly. Whether you use growth hormone injections, testosterone cream, Andriol capsules, Proviron, methyltestosterone, anastrozole, or clomiphene, and even with a tongkat ali stack that also incorporates butea superba, mucuna pruriens, and krachai dam, there is no clear onset, and now clear end-of-efficacy time.

In me and many other users, any testosterone-raising medication can cause an outburst of anger (if there is an event that triggers it). The outburst may happen after 2 hours, or after 4, or after 8 or not at all, if nothing happens that would give me reason to get angry. But let me drive a car in a Third World country where people typically do not follow any traffic rules, and not even traffic common sense! If I have taken testosterone-raising medications, I will have a harder time to keep my calm.

The case is similar, but still more erratic with libido. Medications that work on the endocrine system can be extremely sexualizing, but it is very hard to plan this effect. This also applies on a tongkat ali stack with butea superba, mucuna pruriens, and krachai dam.

You can have a relationships schedule when you take yohimbine or dopaminergics. I will reliably have an erection some one-and-one-half hours after ingesting some 10 to 20 mg of yohimbine. I just have to scratch my member, and voila, here we go.

Likewise, when on apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, or Thai mucuna pruriens, I will feel more excitement during intercourse than when in a sober state. The dopaminergics usually only exert their effect when already at it; at the dosages that I use, they do little for pre-intercourse desire. But Parkinson's patients who use much higher dosages, and do so constantly, often are in a constant state of relationships alert.

Viagra isn't as reliable for erections as yohimbine. When I take Viagra without dopaminergics (including mucuna pruriens) or endocrine agents (including tongkat ali), I may not have the libido impulse to cause a hard erection. I may just have an enlarged but still flaccid organ, and not much drive to pursue intercourse.

Tongkat ali is an endocrine agent, not a vascular modifier. Endocrine agents have a subtle effect on libido. To describe it, I have to reach back a few decades.

I remember the time when I was 12 or 13 years old. Often, before falling asleep, I could daydream along for half an hour or an hour, just imagining relationships scenarios. There was a girl, two or three years my senior, and heavy-bodied, and I imagined I were to abduct her to an old farmhouse, and lock her up, and just observe her through a peephole until she were to pee.

I could just recall this fantasy, night after night, and imagine and re-imagine explicit details, and the excitement wouldn't wane. Night after night, week after week. Never bored.

I could still get lost in masturbation fantasies until the end of my 20's, but in my 30's and 40's, they were no more. As I grew older, relationships moved from between the ears to between the groins. While at a younger age, erections came from imagination, they later required physical sensation.

Enter the tongkat ali.

What I first noticed was that during routine relationships with an established partner, my mind began wondering off to strange ideas. That I was a perverse school headmaster who would punish pupils arriving delayed by squeezing some private parts. Or that I was a cruel Chinese emperor with a harem of 1000 concubines. Those who couldn't bring me to orgasm would be executed. And I really had them work to save their lives. All of that during standard intercourse with a dear lady with whom I otherwise have a rather practical relationship.

Now, this has been going on for weeks. The settings of my fantasies change, but what remains the same is that I really can indulge in them for about half an hour, while at intercourse with a routine relationships partner who is completely absent from the scenario that I imagine.

This is how I feel tongkat ali's impact on my endocrine system. And I love it.

Or rather: this is how I feel a gram of the 1:200 extract from Sumatra Pasak Bumi. I had earlier tried other tongkat ali products, but their effect had been nondescript. Please see my article on tongkat ali dosage for what I consider effective and non-effective amounts.

Because tongkat ali is not a switch-on switch-off relationships stimulant, I believe it is best to take it on a daily basis for about two or three weeks, and then to rest it for about a week. I usually take it some time around noon, as a single 1-gram dosage. Initially I felt a specific hotheadedness after about an hour, but this effect has since subsided.

I cannot say that after 2 hours, or 4 hours, or even after 8 hours I would have great relationships. I cannot willfully switch it on. Great relationships on tongkat ali comes sporadic. Could be later in the day, or even just the next morning.

I always take the tongkat ali with sildenafil citrate (generic Viagra, 50 mg). I don't have the blood vessel stability to go without it. I tried, after another participant in our tongkat ali trial reported that the tongkat ali allows him to go without the Viagra, but when I left it out of my cocktail, my erection clearly wasn't of the usual sildenafil-aided quality.

By all indications, tongkat ali is a hormonal stimulant, and hormonal stimulants, including testosterone, have a weak track record when it comes to aiding erections. Tongkat ali is no exception.

I have a good number of girlfriends. I enjoy variation, and I do not intend to go without it, especially as it has taken me a lot of efforts to arrange everything in a manner that would allow me this lifestyle.

But I believe that the greatest benefit from tongkat ali will be enjoyed by people who are in a rather steady and monogamous relationship. If I have enough imagination, I don't need variation. As a matter of fact, my imaginations blossom brighter with a routine partner who knows my physical preferences and doesn't need verbal attention before or during intercourse. With a routine partner, I just can dive into an ocean of fantasies, without need to resurface for rather practical matters.

On the other hand, when on tongkat ali, the strangeness of a new partner, too, can be turned into relationships excitement. In that case it's not so much the indulging in fantasies but the idea of conscious role play. The roles may not be as weird as my fantasies with a routine partner, but they are still different from normal, sober life.

So, whatever the setting, tongkat ali clearly supports the imaginative part of relationships interaction.


Continue reading about tongkat ali, dopamine, and eternal relationships desire

or

Read about estrogenic packaging messing with androgenic tongkat ali


References:

Allen, L. (2018) ‘It’s just a organ’: the politics of publishing photos in research about sexuality. Journal Culture, Health & Sexuality Volume 21, Issue 9 Pages 1012-1028 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Auriemma RS, Pirchio R, De Alcubierre D, Pivonello R, Colao A. (2019) Dopamine Agonists - from the 1970s up to today. Neuroendocrinology.

Dominguez, J.M., Hull, E.M., (2005) Dopamine, the medial preoptic area, and male relationships behavior. Physiology & Behavior Volume 86, Issue 3, Pages 356-368

Francken, A.B., van de Wiel, H.B.M., van Driel, M.F., Weijmar Schultz, W.C.M. (2002) What Importance Do Women Attribute to the Size of the Organ? European Urology Volume 42, Issue 5, Pages 426-431 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Giuliano F., Allard, J. (2001) Dopamine and relationships function. International Journal of Impotence Research Volume 13, Pages S18–S28

Greenstein, A., Dekalo, S., Chen, J. (2019) Penile size in adult men—recommendations for clinical and research measurements Nature - International Journal of Impotence Research Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Hollander, A.B., Pastuszak, A.W., Hsieh, T.S., Johnson, W.G., Scovell, G.M., Mai, C.K., Lipshultz, L.I. (2016) Relationships Medicine Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages e28-e33 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Horowski R, Löschmann P.A. (2019) Classical dopamine agonists. Journal of Neural Transmission Volume 126 Issue 4 Pages: 449-454

Hull, E. M., Muschamp, J. W., Sato, S. (2004) Dopamine and serotonin influences on male relationships behavior. Physiology & Behavior Volume 83, Issue 2, 15 Pages 291-307

Janmohamed, S., Bouloux, P.M.G. (2017) Endocrinology of male relationships dysfunction. Male Relationships Dysfunction: A Clinical Guide Tongkatali.org Bibliography

King, B.M., Duncan, L.M., Clinkenbeard, K.M., Rutland, M.R. Ryan, K.M. (2019) Social Desirability and Young Men’s Self-Reports of Organ Size. Journal of Relationships & Marital Therapy Volume 45, Issue 5 Pages: 452-455 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Lever, J., Frederick, D. A., Peplau, L.A. (2006) Does size matter? Men's and women's views on organ size across the lifespan. Psychology of Men & Masculininity Volume 7 Issue 3, Pages: 129-143 Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Marra, G., Drury, A., Tran, L., Veale, D., Muir, G.H. (2019) Systematic Review of Surgical and Nonsurgical Interventions in Normal Men Complaining of Small Organ Size. Relationships Medicine Reviews Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Mautz, B.S., Wong, B.B.M., Peters, R.A., Jennions, M.D. (2013) Organ size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness. PNAS Volume 110 Issue 17, Pages: 6925-6930 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Melis, M. R., Argiolas, A. (1995) Dopamine and relationships behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 19-38

Janmohamed, S., Bouloux, P.M.G. (2017) Endocrinology of male relationships dysfunction. Male Relationships Dysfunction: A Clinical Guide Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Mutwedu, V.B., Ayagirwe, RBB, Bacigale, SB, Mwema, LM, Butseme, S, Kashosi, T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. (2019) Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on relationships behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Tropical Animal Health and Production

Purohit H. Dr., Sharma, O., Dr., (2019) An ayurvedic drug review -kapikacchu (mucuna pruriens). World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research

Radder, D. L.M., Groenestege, T., Andreas T., Boers, I., Muilwijk, Eline, W., Bloem, B.R. (2019) Mucuna Pruriens Combined with Carbidopa in Parkinson?s Disease: A Case Report. Journal of Parkinson's Disease, Vol. Pre-press, Pages: 1-3,

Runegaard, A.J., Fitzpatrick, C. M., Drucker Woldbye, D.P., Andreasen, J.T., Sørensen, A.T., Gether, U., (2019) Modulating Dopamine Signaling and Behavior with Chemogenetics: Concepts, Progress, and Challenges. Pharmacological Reviews Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 123-156

Skoda, K., Pedersen, C.L. (2019) Size Matters After All: Experimental Evidence that SEM Consumption Influences Genital and Body Esteem in Men. Sage Journal Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Štulhofer, A. (2006) How (Un)Important Is Organ Size for Women with Heterosexual Experience? Archives of Relationships Behavior Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages: 5–6 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Tang, C., Sun, R., Wen, G., Zhong, C., Yang, J., Zhu, J., Cong, ., Luo, X., Ma, C. (2019) Cell Death & Disease Volume 10, Article number: 335 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Torti, M., Bravi, D., Vacca, L., Stocchi, F. (2019) Are All Dopamine Agonists Essentially the Same? Drugs Pages 1-11

Wylie, K.R., Eardley, E. (2007) Penile size and the ‘small organ syndrome’. BJUVolume 99, Issue 6 Pages: 1449-1455 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Zhang, J., Armer, J.A. (2016) Cabergoline derivatives. MAP Pharmaceuticals Inc Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography


Many plastics are estrogenic - we use a paper bag barrier


Please note that the extract is packaged in double-layer paper bags inside a plastic bottle. Paper bags cannot be sealed the same way as plastic bags. This means that some extract will spill from the paper bags into the space between the paper bags and the plastic bottle.

The paper bags are food grade, and the plastic bottles have been sterilized. Thus, from a perspective of hygiene, the extract that spills from the paperbags into the space between the paper bags and the plastic bottle is just as fit for consumption as is the content of the paper bags.

Why do we use paper bags inside the plastic bottles?

For more than 20 years, our company, Sumatra Pasak Bumi, has been in the business of hormonal enhancement for men.

Many hormonal parameters of men have declined over the past decades. Sperm counts and sperm motility are at historic lows.

The most likely culprit is plastics. Many plastics leach chemicals with estrogenic activity. These can act as androgen disruptors, lowering testosterone levels and impeding fertility.

The worst offender in this regard is a plastic named bisphenol A. It used to be used for plastic water bottles and food containers, but this practice has largely stopped.

However, it's not just bisphenol A leaching chemicals with estrogenic activity. Many other plastics do, though probably at a lower rate.

As a consequence of these scientific findings, we are trying to use as few plastics as possible.

In our factory, we only use equipment and furnishings of stainless steel or glass.

And we use layers of paper bags as interior lining of our plastic bottles to avoid direct contiguity of our ectracts with plastics as much as possible.

It's in the nature of paper bags that they cannot be sealed. Those paperbags that can be sealed partially have thin interior plastic linings or are waxed. This defeats the idea of plastic avoidance, as those linings or waxings are estrogenic just as much as are conventional plastic packagings.

The food-grade unlined, unwaxed paper bags inside the plastic bottles are the best solution we could think of. Some of the extract powder may leak. The leaked powder is as hygienic as the powder in the paper bags. It is up to the user how concerned he is about consumables in contact with plastics.

99.99 percent of all supplements are packaged in plastic bottles, and buyers are not worriex. The leaked powder in our bottles is likely still of a better safety standard than what others traders sell without alternative.


References:

Ben-Jonathan, N., (2018) Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Breast Cancer: The Saga of Bisphenol A Estrogen Receptor and Breast Cancer pp 343-37720 Cancer Drug Discovery and Development Retrieved from: Tongkatali.org Bibliography

García-Córcoles, M.T.D, Cipa, M., Rodríguez-Gómez, R. Rivas, A., Olea-Serrano, F., Vílcheza, J.L., Zafra-Gómez, A. (2018) Determination of bisphenols with estrogenic activity in plastic packaged baby food samples using solid-liquid extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents followed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis Talanta Volume 178, Pages 441-448 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Liu, B., Lehmler, H.J., Sun, Y., Xu, G., Sun, Q., Snetselaar, L.G., Wallace, R.B., Bao, W. (2019) Association of Bisphenol A and Its Substitutes, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S, with Obesity in United States Children and Adolescents. Diabetes & Metabolism Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages:59-75 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Moon, M.K. (2019) Concern about the Safety of Bisphenol A Substitutes Diabetes & Metabolism Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages:46-48 Tongkatali.org Bibliography

Silva, J,P.A., Ramos, J.G., Campos, M.S., Lima, D.S., Brito, P.V. A. Mendes, E.P., Taboga, S. R., Biancardi, M. F., Ghedini, P. C., Santos, F.C.A. (2019) Bisphenol-S promotes endocrine-disrupting effects similar to those promoted by bisphenol-A in the prostate of adult gerbils. Reproductive Toxicology Volume 85, Pages 83-92 Tongkatali.org Bibliography


Genuine tongkat ali is no health risk, even at a generous dosage


By Serge Kreutz


But fake tongkat ali kills.

Just consider the news of the past few month. 40,000 sachets of fake tongkat ali coffee seized in Malaysia, Zambia has it's own scandal of fake tongkat ali, and in the US, another fake tongkat ali coffee from Malaysia / Singapore has been recalled.

Most fake tongkat ali is a root powder, which may or may not be tongkat ali, laced with a sildenafil analogue.

Mind you, Pfizer's Viagra is sildenafil citrate. Analogues may be other salts of sildenafil, or a sildenafil, altered on a side string without clear pharmaceutical effects.

Analogues of sildenafil have been around from the time when sildenafil citrate was still patented.

But when you shop for tongkat ali you probably don't want a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.

Sure, phosphodiesterase inhibitors cause erections alright.

But genuine tongkat ali enhances testosterone, with a great positive effect on mood and general well-being.

And these are effects that are clearly felt with our genuine products, but never with fakes.


References:

Bujang, B., Chee, C.F., Heh, C.H., Rahman, N. A. (2017) Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants of herbal and food products: analysis of the Malaysian market in 2014-2016. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, Volume 34 Issue 7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2017.1336674

FMT Reporters (2017) Another Tongkat Ali coffee product recalled in the US. Free Malaysia Today Retrieved from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2017/07/21/another-tongkat-ali-coffee-product-recalled-in-the-us/

FMT Reporters (2017) Coffee product with Tongkat Ali recalled in the US. Retrieved from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2017/05/28/coffee-product-with-tongkat-ali-recalled-in-the-us/

Lin YT, Huang YC, Lee HC, Liao CH, Lin YL, Tsai CF, Cheng HF., (2017) Isolation and identification of a novel sildenafil analogue adulterant in herbal products. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages:330-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2016.1272137

Mojzych M, Karczmarzyk Z, Wysocki W, Ceruso M, Supuran CT, Kryštof V, Urbanczyk-Lipkowska Z, Kalicki P. (2015) New approaches to the synthesis of sildenafil analogues and their enzyme inhibitory activity. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages:1421-1429 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.02.026

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Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study

R Katzenschlager, A Evans, A Manson, P N Patsalos, N Ratnaraj, H Watt, L Timmermann, R Van der Giessen, A J Lees

Abstract

Background: The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD).

Methods: Eight Parkinson’s disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised, controlled, double blind crossover trial. Patients were challenged with single doses of 200/50 mg LD/CD, and 15 and 30 g of mucuna preparation in randomised order at weekly intervals. L-Dopa pharmacokinetics were determined, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and tapping speed were obtained at baseline and repeatedly during the 4 h following drug ingestion. Dyskinesias were assessed using modified AIMS and Goetz scales.

Results: Compared with standard LD/CD, the 30 g mucuna preparation led to a considerably faster onset of effect (34.6 v 68.5 min; p = 0.021), reflected in shorter latencies to peak L-dopa plasma concentrations. Mean on time was 21.9% (37 min) longer with 30 g mucuna than with LD/CD (p = 0.021); peak L-dopa plasma concentrations were 110% higher and the area under the plasma concentration v time curve (area under curve) was 165.3% larger (p = 0.012). No significant differences in dyskinesias or tolerability occurred.

Conclusions: The rapid onset of action and longer on time without concomitant increase in dyskinesias on mucuna seed powder formulation suggest that this natural source of L-dopa might possess advantages over conventional L-dopa preparations in the long term management of PD. Assessment of long term efficacy and tolerability in a randomised, controlled study is warranted.

https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/75/12/1672.short




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